Date of Award
Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)
Flor. A Culpa-Bondal, Ph.D, APRN, PMHCNS/NP-BC
Sandra Copeland, DNP, RN, CNS-BC, FNP
Joy Chang, ANP-BC
The U.S is currently experiencing a deadly opioid epidemic, as demonstrated by the prevalence of opioid misuse and overdose-related deaths. Over the last two decades, opioid overdose has claimed the lives of more than 700,000 Americans; deaths increased by 200% from 2000 to 2014 (National Institute of Health, 2020), and totaled 67,367 in 2018 alone (CDC, 2020). Therefore, healthcare providers collaborating with other stakeholders must continue to explore and apply appropriate risk assessment tools to mitigate this crisis, such as a systematic method of risk stratification. This quality improvement project aims to improve current opioid risk screening practices conducted by acute pain services (APS) by introducing an opioid risk assessment tool, the Diagnosis, Intractability, Risk, and Efficacy Score (DIRE), into clinical practice. The DIRE was designed to be utilized in clinical practice and expected to substantially change providers’ prescribing decisions. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants (N=11), APS providers from a metropolitan hospital in Atlanta, GA. Data was collected retrospectively, utilizing the DIRE and 8-weeks rounding sheet, before and during the 10-week project implementation. Lastly, a post-implementation questionnaire survey provided feedback about the DIRE. This research demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between provider’s initial and final plans to initiate long-term opioid therapy or refer patients to addiction specialists. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between patients’ risk level and their providers’ decision to initiate long-term opioid therapy or refer patients to addiction specialists. The percentage of long-term opioid therapy methods initiated during the ten weeks of project implementation decreased from pre- to post-assessment. The providers’ utilization of the DIRE increased, and the majority of providers perceived DIRE to be an easy, helpful guide for making the difficult decision to authorize long-term opioid therapy, validating their initial assessment and interventions. The DIRE helps to promote patients’ safety and supports the safe prescription of long-term opioids.
Owie, Emoshoke, "Implementation of an Opioid Risk Assessment Tool in an Acute Pain Service" (2021). Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Translational and Clinical Research Projects. 52.