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BMJ Open


Objective Ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) is associated with greater longevity and reduced morbidity, but no research on ICH has been conducted in Jamaica. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of ICH in urban Jamaica and to evaluate associations between ICH and community, household, and individual socioeconomic status (SES). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Urban communities in Jamaica. Participants 360 men and 665 women who were urban residents aged ≥20 years from a national survey, the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2016-2017. Exposures Community SES, using median land values (MLV); household SES, using number of household assets; and individual SES, using education level. Primary outcome The main outcome variable was ICH, defined as having five or more of seven ICH characteristics (ICH-5): current non-smoking, healthy diet, moderate physical activity, normal body mass index, normal blood pressure, normal glucose and normal cholesterol. Prevalence was estimated using weighted survey design and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. Results The prevalence of overall ICH (seven characteristics) was 0.51%, while the prevalence of ICH-5 was 22.9% (male 24.5%, female 21.5%, p=0.447). In sex-specific multivariable models adjusted for age, education, and household assets, men in the lower tertiles of community MLV had lower odds of ICH-5 compared with men in the upper tertile (lowest tertile: OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.91, p=0.032; middle tertile: OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.04, p=0.062). Women from communities in the lower and middle tertiles of MLV also had lower odds of ICH-5, but the association was not statistically significant. Educational attainment was inversely associated with ICH-5 among men and positively associated among women. Conclusion Living in poorer communities was associated with lower odds of ICH-5 among men in Jamaica. The association between education level and ICH-5 differed in men and women.


Health and Human Performance

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