Faculty Mentors

Dr. Susan Cumings


This study aimed to determine cell phone usage differences in dependency upon family and friends between upper division (3rd & 4th year undergraduates) and lower division (1st & 2nd year undergraduates) males and females. Subjects consisted of 270 students at a public liberal arts university in the southeastern United States. Participants in the study were administered an online survey that consisted of 31 questions assessing their cell phone usage. Cell phone usage in this study was defined as engaging in verbal communication on a cellular phone. Dependency was measured by the number of calls and length of calls one reportedly made to family and friends. Analysis of the data suggested that the most autonomous group, as indicated by cell phone usage, was upper division males and the least autonomous group was lower division females. Recommendations for further research conclude this study.

Included in

Psychology Commons



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